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Absorption and excretion
Calcium is absorbed by the digestive tract and excreted in a small amount through the urine. Intestinal absorption and reabsorption in the kidneys are intensified by the presence of vitamin D3.
Role in muscle contraction
Calcium ions are necessary for initiating the contraction of both striated muscles (skeletal and cardiac muscle) and smooth muscles (building internal organs). Acetylcholine released from a synapse binds to the muscle cell membrane and causes the transmission of an impulse from the sarcolemma into the smooth endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Subseqently, calcium cations are released from the cytoplasm by transport proteins and facilitate the binding of the head domain of myosin to actin (thereby initiating muscle contraction). A deficiency of this element may result in involuntary muscle cramps and its supplementation may be indicated for individuals with this disease.
Calcium as a building block of bones
Bone tissue is built of organic elements, which are collagen, non-collagenous proteins (such as fibronectin, osteopontin, proteoglycans and others), and also non-organic elements. These last ones include calcium as phosphate compounds which form crystalline structures, critical to bone hardness. Increased susceptibility to fractures is observed in postmenopausal women due to a deficiency of hormones vital to calcium balance – oestrogens which facilitate the absorption of this element. This condition is called osteoporosis. Apart from hormone replacement therapy, patients supplement with exogenous calcium during the treatment.
Calcium as an element of coagulation cascade
One of underestimated functions of this element is its role in blood clotting. Without the presence of these cations in serum, the process is stopped at many stages – the formation of active factors: IX, X, XI and thrombin is impossible. This results in active bleeding in injured areas.
Other functions of calcium
The most important function of calcium at the molecular level is that it is involved in the transduction of signals in the cellular cytoplasm and synapses. The presence of these ions in the presynaptic nerve terminal is necessary for releasing granules with accumulated neurotransmitters. They have thus an indirect impact on neurotransmission and consequently normal functioning of the nervous system. Some hormones have a specific effect on tissues by regulating intracellular levels of this element. It should be emphasised that many tissues (thyroid, parathyroid glands and kidneys) have special receptors (sensors) for controlling calcium concentration in the blood. In the case of too low levels, parathyroid glands secrete parathormone which promotes calcium storage in bones. During its excess, thyroid and calcitonin facilitate its accumulation in bone tissue.
Vitamin D3 and its role in calcium balance
Vitamin D3 is a derivative of cholesterol which is synthesised in the skin, liver and kidneys. Biological activity is attributed to three derivatives. However, the main focus is on 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. Its biosynthesis takes place in the skin, liver and kidneys. This vitamin is found very often found in supplements with calcium because one of its tasks is to promote intestinal calcium absorption (by increasing the expression of a calcium-binding protein) and inhibit urinary excretion of this element. It has also a protective effect on bone tissue by regulating its anabolic processes – synthesis of matrix constituents.
To sum up, both components of the supplement Olimp Chela-Calcium D3 have a similar effect on normal bone function. In addition, calcium is involved in many bodily processes – its deficiency impairs coagulation and transmission of intracellular and interneuronal signals and predisposes you to muscle cramps. Supplementation should be considered by individuals with similar ailments of the motor system.
The product is recommended, among others, in osteoporosis prevention. In order to increase assimilability of the preparation, it may be combined with vitamin K and magnesium.
Olimp is a Polish company offering dietary supplements and supplements for athletes that are made of carefully selected and safe for health ingredients. Among the products of this brand are protein supplements, amino acid supplements, pre-workout supplements and creatine. The company also allows the purchase of supplements inducing a strong muscle pump by raising significantly the level of nitric oxide in the blood and supplements restoring acid-alkine balance. Also noteworthy are supplements helping to reduce body fat, regulating metabolism and improving of the hair, skin and nails.
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Microcrystalline cellulose – bulking agent, magnesium stearate – anti-caking agent, capsule (gelatine – capsule’s ingredient, pigment: E171).
Calcium (element chem. symbol Ca, atomic no. 20, the group of alkaline earth metals) is the basic building substance of bones and teeth, in which stored is 99% of the element, in the form of hydroxylapatite. When building bones and teeth, phosphorus is very important in the right proportion. It is a base-forming element and activator of many enzymes (ATPase) necessary to release the energy of ATP. It has a significant effect on blood clotting and regulates blood pressure and neuromuscular conductivity. Thanks to the reduced permeability of cell membranes, it soothes the symptoms of food allergies. Calcium is actively involved in the metabolism of iron interacts with vitamins A, C and D and phosphorus, magnesium. Natural source of calcium are animal products (dairy products, sardines, salmon, sprats eaten with bones) and plant products (nuts, soybeans, sunflower seeds). Absorption takes place in the small intestine (less in the colon), it has an effect on the level of lactose, insoluble fibre, organic acids, alkalinity (low pH). The best absorption have organic compounds (lactates, amino acid chelates etc.). Obstructing the absorption of calcium is caused by: phytic acid and oxalic acid as well as excess fat. Scientific studies have confirmed that the combination of calcium, magnesium, boron and vitamin D in dose 3 mg / 24h effectively prevent osteoporosis. Supplements on the market are both mono-preparation supplements (enriched with vitamin D3) and multi-component supplements, available at www.muscle-zone.pl.
Calcium deficiency disorders manifested in the construction of the bones (osteoporosis) and iron metabolism. The symptoms are: rickets, cramps and muscle tremor, osteoporosis.
Excess resulting from an overdose of calcium supplements containing vitamin D3 for children and adults overdose of calcium (hypercalcemia). Symptoms of hypercalcemia are: lack of appetite, vomiting and constipation.
The dosage administered in various publications are inconsistent: 800 - 1000 mg / 24 h (100 - 500 mg / 24h)
Vitamin D belongs to fat soluble vitamins, occurs in three forms: calciferol (vitamin D1) ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), it is formed under the action of sunlight for at least 15 minutes per day. In the absence of sunlight it should be administered in the diet in the form of fish oil (Vitamin A + D3) and fish oils. It is responsible for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. It is the building substance of bone tissue particularly necessary during pregnancy, childhood, and for athletes. It is a component of dietary supplements and nutrients among competetive athletes. Deficiency of vitamin D causes children growth inhibition, and rickets.
For adults - deficiency causes osteomalacia.
Excess of vitamin D causes headaches, alopecia, nausea, drowsiness, blurred vision, pain in the long bones, the deposition of calcium deposits.
Dosage: 400 IU units during the day.
Cholecalciferol, or vitamin D3, is an organic chemical that belongs to the family of D vitamins. It is naturally found in fatty fish, fish oil, egg yolks, milk and dairy products. It is also synthesized in the human body. It is formed from 7-dehydrocholesterol present in the keratinocytes of the spinous and the basal layers of the epidermis, and a pre-requisite for initiating this process is the action of 290-315 nm wavelength UVB radiation on the skin.
Cholecalciferol is a biologically inactive compound. In the body, it undergoes enzymatic hydroxylation – first in the liver, with the participation of 25-hydroxylase, when calcidiol is formed and secondly in the kidneys, where under the influence of 1-α-hydroxylase, calcidiol is converted into the final active form – calcitriol.
The most important role of vitamin D3 in the body is the regulation of calcium-phosphate metabolism, which directly affects normal skeletal mineralization. In addition, it is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, insulin secretion, as well as in some functions of the nervous, endocrine and immune systems.
Cholecalciferol is the most popular form of vitamin D used in dietary supplements. Studies show that supplementation with vitamin D in this form most effectively and rapidly raises the level of 25 (OH) D3 – a metabolite that is a marker of the level of vitamin D in the body.
Dosage: according to RDI standards for individual age groups.
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