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Thorne Research, Vitamin D K2 is a dietary supplement with vitamin D3 which shows complex physiological action on the human body, mainly on the calcium-phosphate balance, maintaining the proper structure of the skeletal system. In addition, the product is a source of vitamin K2, which also plays a part in the calcium balance and affects blood clotting.
The mechanism of action
The synthesis of gamma-carboxyglutamate (from glutamate) in the vitamin K cycle is considered to be the main mechanism of action of this vitamin in the human body. During this process, it's possible that some enzymes called vitamin K-dependent factors will change their functions. Their role appears to be focused on the process of blood clotting and bone metabolism. In the event of vitamin K deficiency, the activity of these enzymes can be limited and insufficient for the efficient functioning of the body.
Important vitamin k-dependent enzymes and proteins include:
Osteocalcin – a protein which acts as a negative regulator of bone remodelling and soft tissue calcification. It's also a positive regulator of bone formation and angiogenesis (the formation of blood vessels). It can also lower blood glucose levels and improve pancreatic β-cell proliferation and that's why it's said about its action against obesity.
Factor II (prothrombin), VII, IX and X – for proper blood clotting.
Fetuina-A – a protein involved in the inhibition of soft tissue calcification.
MGP protein – a protein taking part in the bone metabolism.
Gas6 gene – involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, the proper brain function (chemotaxis, mitosis, cell growth and myelination) and protection of nerve cells against apoptosis.
Periostin – a part of collagen and bone tissue, performs a crucial role in tissue regeneration and wound healing.
Protein S – participates in the bone metabolism, blood clotting, the removal of cells undergoing apoptosis and the protection of nerve cells against apoptosis.
Vitamin K and longevity
According to one of the theories of ageing, this process is caused by mitochondrial dysfunction and damage. It seems that vitamin K supports the production of ATP in the mitochondria that were exposed to stimuli reducing energy production. No underlying mechanisms of this action have been recognised so far.
This vitamin is also commonly known for its antioxidant properties. It protects neurons from oxidative stress (depletion of glutathione). The correlation has been discovered between the levels of this vitamin and the level of cognitive abilities in the elderly. It can be presumed that the proper vitamin K levels can protect against the neurodegenerative effect of ageing.
The effect on the nervous system
It appears that vitamin K serves also certain functions in the brain. It can be confirmed by the fact that the administration of warfarin (a vitamin K antagonist) in infants may cause mental retardation. Vitamin K is involved in the synthesis of sphingolipids, which protect the cell surface against dangerous environmental factors by forming the outer layer of the cell membrane. It has been discovered that some complex glycosphingolipids take part in molecular recognition and intercellular signalling. They are also found to function as mediators in signalling cascades that block negative effects of stress.
The impact on the cardiovascular system
People with osteoporosis have calcium deposits in the arteries which reduces blood flow. Excess calcium in one part of the body (arteries) and its lack in another one (bone) may occur despite of calcium supplementation and is called the calcium paradox. This phenomenon is caused by the deficiency of vitamin K2 that leads to impaired biological function of MGP proteins, which are the best in preventing the calcification of blood vessels. Studies on animals have shown that it's possible to prevent and even reverse vessel calcification by increasing the daily intake of vitamin K2.
The effect on glucose metabolism and obesity
Higher levels of total osteocalcin and vitamin K seem to be positively associated with better insulin sensitivity. It has been also reported that a high dose boosts the insulin sensitivity caused by increased activity of adiponectin. Such action may suggest that vitamin K protects against the development of obesity.
The effect on the skeletal system
Low levels of vitamin K2 were observed in patients with femoral neck fracture. Both clinical and laboratory research has demonstrated a strong relationship between the vitamin K2 deficiency and bone health disorders. It was stated that the vitamin K2 deficiency increases the bone fragility caused by lowered osteocalcin levels. Studies have also shown that vitamin K2, combined with calcium and vitamin D, can increase the strength of bones by improving their geometry.
Science confirms the beneficial effect of vitamin K2 on bone mineral density in children and it shows that an additional intake of vitamin K2 may improve bone geometry and has a positive effect on the growth of bone mass. Children need much more vitamin K because they are in the stage of rapid bone growth.
Vitamin D is now one of the objects which excites the greatest interest among researchers. Attempts are made to find its connection with the occurrence of many diseases, health problems and shorter life expectancy. Studies show that people with vitamin D deficiency have a significantly higher risk of developing diseases of affluence (heart diseases, diabetes, cancer, depression), autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorders.
Because of few food products with significant amounts of this vitamin, location and insufficient sunlight, the vitamin D deficiency is one of the most frequent deficiencies of nutrients in our geographical area.
The effect on the skeletal system
The main action of vitamin D consists in regulating the calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Effector organs associated with this function, which are affected by active metabolites of vitamin D, are specifically the intestines and bones and to a lesser extent the kidneys. In the intestines, it leads to greater absorption of calcium and releases calcium and phosphates from bone (in hypocalcaemia) while in the kidneys it works with parathormone in the calcium reasorption.
Vitamin D deficiency in children leads to disorders of bone mineralization, reducing their mass and rickets, whereas in adults it may cause bone pain, osteomalacia and osteoporosis. In addition, by activating protective proteins (antibodies), it supports the immune system in fighting tooth decay.
The effect on the immune system
This vitamin is believed to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and immmunomodulatory properties. The anti-inflammatory effect results from inhibiting the production of cytokines. Vitamin D has the ability to activate the gene encoding proteins with antimicrobial properties. It supports bone marrow cells in fighting autoimmune diseases. Because of the observed relationship between the amount of exposure to sunlight and the presence of certain types of cancer, it is believed that it exhibits anticancer activity.
The action in the cardiovascular system
It has been shown that vitamin D receptors are found for instance in smooth muscles of the blood vessels and cardiomyocytes. It has been stated that vitamin D affects, directly and indirectly, the cardiovascular system.
The active metabolite of vitamin D has a direct impact on the activity of platelets, sympathetic nervous system, inflammation and blood-clotting system, while the indirect impact of vitamin D results from its effect on the glucose metabolism and lipid balance.
Vitamin D deficiency may also indirectly affect the risk of developing high blood pressure and consequently heart failure due to the regulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Research findings suggest a beneficial effect of vitamin D on the cardiovascular system.
In the human body, it plays a double role as both a vitamin and a hormone. It is believed that vitamin D has the ability to regenerate neurons and that's why we can speak of its beneficial effect on the nervous system. Furthermore, the link has been found recently between plasma levels of vitamin D and the occurrence of sleep disorders.
The deficiency of this vitamin may lead to myalgia (muscle pain) and myopathy (muscle weakness), and its therapeutic dose helps patients regain muscle strength and mass. Vitamin D also has an impact on the reproductive system: promotes spermatogenesis and fertility and inhibits proliferation of endometrium cells. It is worth noting that it has the capacity for stimulating the regeneration of liver cells.
To sum up, Thorne Research, Vitamin D K2 is a product designed for all vulnerable to vitamin D deficiency, mainly due to insufficient exposure to sunlight. Such a situation can easily occur in the autumn-winter period. There is a connection between vitamin D deficiency and weakening of the immune system as well as bad mood during the winter period.
As commonly known, vitamin D and K belong to fat-soluble vitamins, so they're necessary for normal fat metabolism. Deficiencies of both vitamins can occur in incidence of the malabsorption of fats or reduction of their intake, which may be caused e.g. by following a low calorie diet.
The factors that increase our needs for this vitamins are: age, kidney and liver diseases and also excess weight, obesity and insufficient vitamin D supply with a diet. Vitamin D deficits concern approximately above 50% of the whole World population, therefore if you live in our climatic zone, you probably need to supplement vitamin D every day. The important information for people taking care about muscle growth – vitamin D works well also as a means supporting muscle tissue growth, especially when used in combination with leucine. It has been proven that vitamin D and leucine used together influence the increase of insulin level and its receptors, thanks to which they strengthen anabolic reaction of the organism.
Thorne Research is a company that since 1984 has been engaged in the production of the highest quality dietary supplements based on innovative recipes. Thorne Research in cooperation with other leaders on the market also produces pharmaceutical, therapeutic and medical preparations.
Thorne Research offers a wide range of products that are trusted worldwide by professionals in the healthcare sector. The activity of the products has been confirmed by numerous clinical tests. The company also has GMP, TGA and NSF certificates, which demonstrates compliance with relevant standards related to the production and safety of use.
The manufacturer constantly raises the bar and focuses on continuous development and improvement of the products by implementing the latest technological solutions and employing top-class specialists.
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Vitamin D belongs to fat soluble vitamins, occurs in three forms: calciferol (vitamin D1) ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), it is formed under the action of sunlight for at least 15 minutes per day. In the absence of sunlight it should be administered in the diet in the form of fish oil (Vitamin A + D3) and fish oils. It is responsible for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. It is the building substance of bone tissue particularly necessary during pregnancy, childhood, and for athletes. It is a component of dietary supplements and nutrients among competetive athletes. Deficiency of vitamin D causes children growth inhibition, and rickets.
For adults - deficiency causes osteomalacia.
Excess of vitamin D causes headaches, alopecia, nausea, drowsiness, blurred vision, pain in the long bones, the deposition of calcium deposits.
Dosage: 400 IU units during the day.
Vitamin K exists in the triad of vitamins: menaquinone (vitamin. K1), menadione (vitamin. K2) and menadione (vitamin. K3), soluble in fat. It is produced by bacteria in the human colon. Natural sources of vitamin. K are: eggs, kale, cauliflower, cabbage, meat, milk, lettuce, spinach, fish oil and liver. The synthetic form is administered to newborns, to reduce the sterility of the gastrointestinal tract. Used as a antihaemorrhagic, due to its participation in the process of prothrombin. Increases antibacterial and antifungal immunity. Prevents abundant bleeding during menstruation of women.
Vitamin K deficiency causes external bleeding and ecchymosis on skin, decreased prothrombin synthesis in the liver (especially while taking antibiotics and sulfanilamide).
What is Vitamin K2?
Vitamin K2 belongs to fat-soluble vitamins It is an important activator of many enzymes and proteins It shows a positive action on calcium balance by activating MGP protein and osteocalcin. This results in the removal of calcium deposits from blood vessel walls and transport of ions of this element to the area where it fulfills its function – teeth and bones. It reduces therefore the calcification of blood vessels and thus the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, it is a constituent of coagulation factors and cosequently prevents haemorrhages. It shows a synergistic action in combination with vitamin D and magnesium.
Vitamin K2 in the form of a dietary supplement of renowned brands e.g. Now Foods, Swanson, Life Extension, Jarrow Formulas and Thorne Research) can be found in formulas available at www.muscle-zone.pl
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