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Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) – is a water-soluble substance. It belongs to the group of B-vitamins. Structurally, it is an amide of pantoic acid and beta-alanine. It is necessary for each living cell. After absorption, it undergoes different metabolic transformations. As pantetheine, it is involved in reactions which lead to the forming of coenzyme A – a biologically active form of pantothenic acid, and ACP – a protein carrier of acyl groups. That is why it is necessary for numerous biological activities, especially for the metabolism of carbohydrates.
Coenzyme A and its role in the metabolism
In each cell, there is a kind of a central transport hub, more specifically – the metabolic node, in which numerous changes take place. It allows a smooth, dynamic combination of important metabolic pathways.
The universal metabolic node is the active form of pantothenate – coenzyme A (CoA), which contains a –SH group, which can react with carboxyl groups of organic compounds. Then, it is created a connection with acyl radical – acyl-CoA. Particularly common, CoA merges with bicarbonate acetyl group (acetate radical), which can be derived from the conversion of pyruvate (a product of glucose breakdown in the process of glycosis), fatty acids (during their oxidation in the process of beta-oxidation) or certain amino acids (after prior deamination).
Then, COA is a universal transmitter of acyl and acetyl groups (as acetyl-CoA). Acetyl group may be used by the body system for energy purposes (the body system may oxidize it inside the mitochondrion in the Krebs cycle) or moved into the cytoplasm, where it can be transformed into ketone bodies, cholesterol or carbon skeletons of certain amino acids. Acetyl-CoA participates also in the synthesis of acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter) and in the process of excretion of sulfonamides
Pantothenic acid determines the proper metabolism of proteins, sugars and fats. It accelerates the wound healing, soothes inflammations, participates in the production of adrenal hormones, prevents fatigue and improves the cardiovascular system. It is also involved in tissue regeneration, improves pigmentation and condition of hair and speeds up their growth.
Moreover, it participates in the growth processes of the body system as well as affects the regeneration of skin, hair and nails. It also shows little anti-inflammatory properties and may seal epithelia. It is believed that it prevents the premature aging and formation of wrinkles, although it has not been proven clinically yet.
The side effects of the deficiency and the need
Deficiency of vitamin B5 leads to nervous system disorders, learning difficulties, excessive irritability, pain, and stiffness of the joints, and premature hair greying. Also, there may occur fainting, depression, loss of coordination, feeling of numbness, tingling and cramping in the arms and legs, wobbly gait, hair loss, skin lesions, flushing and vision problems.
Higher demand for vitamin B5 is observed among smokers, alcoholics, pregnant and lactating women, patients with a chronic, debilitating disease, malnourished people and people exposed to chronic physical effort
To sum it all up, Jarrow Formulas Pantothenic Acid B5 is a dietary supplement recommended to make up the deficiency of pantothenic acid in the body system. It is especially recommended for women, due to the participation in the processes of regeneration of skin, hair and nails. It can be so applied in the diseases of skin and mucous membranes, as well as in the disorders of gastrointestinal tract.
The product is recommended in particular to supplement the deficiency of vitamin B5. It has been observed that pantothenic acid helps to alleviate acne. It can be recommended to people with skin problems for a faster recovery, and may be beneficial in the case of wounds and burns. High doses of pantothenic acid are very well tolerated by the body, but in some cases may cause diarrhea.
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|per 1 capsule||amount||%DV|
|Pantothenic Acid (as d-Calcium Pantothenate)||500 mg||10,000%|
Cellulose and magnesium stearate (vegetable source). Capsule consists of gelatin.
Calcium (element chem. symbol Ca, atomic no. 20, the group of alkaline earth metals) is the basic building substance of bones and teeth, in which stored is 99% of the element, in the form of hydroxylapatite. When building bones and teeth, phosphorus is very important in the right proportion. It is a base-forming element and activator of many enzymes (ATPase) necessary to release the energy of ATP. It has a significant effect on blood clotting and regulates blood pressure and neuromuscular conductivity. Thanks to the reduced permeability of cell membranes, it soothes the symptoms of food allergies. Calcium is actively involved in the metabolism of iron interacts with vitamins A, C and D and phosphorus, magnesium. Natural source of calcium are animal products (dairy products, sardines, salmon, sprats eaten with bones) and plant products (nuts, soybeans, sunflower seeds). Absorption takes place in the small intestine (less in the colon), it has an effect on the level of lactose, insoluble fibre, organic acids, alkalinity (low pH). The best absorption have organic compounds (lactates, amino acid chelates etc.). Obstructing the absorption of calcium is caused by: phytic acid and oxalic acid as well as excess fat. Scientific studies have confirmed that the combination of calcium, magnesium, boron and vitamin D in dose 3 mg / 24h effectively prevent osteoporosis. Supplements on the market are both mono-preparation supplements (enriched with vitamin D3) and multi-component supplements, available at www.muscle-zone.pl.
Calcium deficiency disorders manifested in the construction of the bones (osteoporosis) and iron metabolism. The symptoms are: rickets, cramps and muscle tremor, osteoporosis.
Excess resulting from an overdose of calcium supplements containing vitamin D3 for children and adults overdose of calcium (hypercalcemia). Symptoms of hypercalcemia are: lack of appetite, vomiting and constipation.
The dosage administered in various publications are inconsistent: 800 - 1000 mg / 24 h (100 - 500 mg / 24h)